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Definition: Tracking refers to the practice of sorting the entire school population by academic ability level for all classes. Through various assessments, students would be labeled as above average (or gifted), average, or below average. This designation would then determine the student's courses and teachers as students are group only with similarly labeled classmates.

Many parents and educators find tracking to be a controversial practice. Students in the advanced track are exposed to more challenging material and often expected to excel, whereas "lower" students are taught more basic material and often expected merely to pass.

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